With the 5060 Centerpiece, the primary aim is to deliver the extraordinary quality of the 5088 in a compact, modular framework. With an abundance of interconnectivity, exceptional fidelity, and the tonal versatility of Silk, the 5060 is the ideal core of the quality-conscious modern studio.
In a modular, hybrid analogue/digital mix system built around the Centerpiece, existing gear can be seamlessly integrated with this mix-buss: the core of Rupert’s legendary console designs, responsible for the sound of five decades of the world’s favorite records. Utilizing modern DAW control technologies, the 5060 integrates stem outputs from the DAW with the rest of the control room, sums the final mix, and provides 2-track outputs, source selection, and multiple speaker feeds from the monitor section.
With its custom transformers, a class-A mix buss and variable Silk, the 5060 can also provide a huge range of tonal flavors. For a rich, vintage vibe, the mix buss can be driven hard and Silk/Texture can be implemented in either of two different transformer saturation modes – or Silk can be disengaged entirely for clear, wide-open sonic beauty.
Used in conjunction with 5059 mixers and Portico modules, the 5060 forms the center of a completely scalable analogue system. In this arrangement, the 5059s provide individual channel control, aux routing, and expandable channel counts, the Portico modules provide preamplification, EQ and dynamics, and the 5060 unites it all.
While digital technologies come and go, the modular, class-A analog designs Rupert created decades ago have been proven to stand the test of time. Instead of merely cloning these “classics”, Rupert has spent recent years leading a team of engineers in crafting new designs, built on the same key principals, that take sonic performance, flexibility and ergonomics to new heights. These designs embody the high-voltage, class-A, discrete and transformer-coupled architectures found in the 5088 console, which represent a culmination of Rupert’s vast analogue circuitry knowledge.
For more information, visit the 5060 webpage.
In the last year, the Master Buss Processor has been utilized by a diverse range of mastering engineers like Dave Collins (Black Sabbath, No Doubt, Danny Elfman) and Scott Hull (Elvis Costello, Herbie Hancock, John Mayer, Steely Dan), live sound engineers like Ken ‘Pooch’ Van Druten (Linkin Park, Guns & Roses, Jane’s Addiction) and Greg Price (Weezer, Foo Fighters, Van Halen), and countless mix engineers worldwide.
The Satellite Summing Mixer was launched last summer to great acclaim, bringing the imaging and tonal capabilities of classic full-scale Rupert Neve-designed consoles to a much smaller and more accessible format scaled for the project studio and home mixing environment.
Lastly, the 542 Tape Emulator with Texture is a new version of the Portico 5042 Tape Emulator for the 500-series format, with a number of additional features including a wet/dry knob, soft-clip limiter, and dual Silk (transformer saturation) modes.
For a full list of this year’s TEC Award winners, click here.]]>
With a truly legendary preamp and the flexibility of variable Silk/Texture, the 511 provides exceptional sonic performance and flexibility for only $650 (list). Incorporating the pristine preamp circuitry from the 517, the sweepable high-pass filter from the 5012, and the power of a variable Silk circuit derived from the flagship Portico II Channel, the 511 is a Rupert Neve-designed workhorse for any user’s most important tracks.
For company founder and lead designer Rupert Neve, the design process was far more intensive than copying existing designs. “Although creating a functional 500 Series mic pre is relatively simple, designing those modules to equal their non-500 Series counterparts with the current, voltage and space restraints is quite challenging. In creating the 511 we experimented with a number of different transformer and circuit topologies to achieve the same presence and sweetness found in the Portico Series of modules. The result of these efforts is that outside of the slightly lowered headroom, the 511′s performance is nearly indistinguishable from standard Portico Series modules.”
The 511 can be used for either mic or line sources, and pairs perfectly with any ribbon, dynamic, condenser or tube microphone. A polarity reverse switch is available to conquer phase issues when using multiple microphones. The 12 dB/octave swept high-pass filter can be dialed-in to remove rumble with minimal artifacts, and also to control proximity effect in close-mic’d vocals or other sources. To coax more rich harmonic content from the output transformer, the Silk Red mode can be engaged to add more thickness and sparkle in the high end as the Texture level is increased. While a little Silk Red can sound great on nearly any source, it is especially useful on dynamic and ribbon microphones that are inherently lacking in high-frequency energy and excitement.
The second new module, the 542, is a follow-up to the acclaimed Portico 5042 which has a will retail for only $895 list. As such, it delivers a remarkable simulation of classic tape sound through the inclusion of genuine tape drive circuitry while also incorporating a number of new methods for adding analogue color to individual tracks and mixes.
The 542’s “True Tape” emulation circuit provides the nostalgic rounding and compression typically achieved only through the use of tape, and can offset the harshness often found in digital recordings. Unlike digital emulations, the “True Tape” drive circuit works by feeding a tiny magnetic “record head,” which in turn is coupled to a correctly-equalized replay amplifier. As the voltage rises on the “record head,” saturation increases, and a soft-clip circuit engages at higher levels to round off harsh peak transients. The sound of the tape circuit can be further modified with selectable 15 and 30 ipsmodes, providing a “saturation equalization” of sorts, and a pre/post-tape blend control. In addition to the tape circuit, the 542 also includes the variable Silk/Texture circuitry found in the Portico II series of modules (with both much-loved Red and Blue modes), which allows the engineer to fine-tune the harmonic ratio and tonality of the output transformer.
For engineers, the 542 is an intuitive and dynamic tonal control. The non-linear qualities of the “True Tape” head, Soft-Clip and Silk circuits can be combined and tuned by simply adjusting the saturation, blend and texture controls. These effects can help breathe new life into sterile tracks and enhance performances with their dynamic response. For example, a snare drum captured with a dynamic microphone that sounds anemic and “dead” in the high-end could be run through the 542′s tape and Red Silk circuits to simultaneously thicken the low end and sweeten the high end. If the snare is overly dynamic, the saturation knob can push the signal into soft-clip mode, thus reducing transient spikes. Additionally, the blend control can be used to preserve the drum’s natural dynamics and transient content even with more extreme applications of soft-clip and saturation.
Similarly, using two 542s across a mix, the gain staging can be optimized such that the tape circuit provides extra intensity and excitement in the loudest sections before final compression and limiting. Using this technique can help retain a more dynamic feel, even after the dynamics have been reduced, as the instances with the most compression correspond to the instances that have more pleasant harmonic distortion provided by the “True Tape” circuitry.
With the introduction of the 511 and 542 to the Portico 500 Series, which also includes the existing 517 Mic Pre/Compressor/DI and the 543 Mono Compressor, the 500 Series now has four of the most versatile tone controllers and mic preamps available on the market. In a world with numerous imitations, only the Portico 500 Series modules carry on the legacy of tone, quality and craftsmanship synonymous with the Rupert Neve name.
About Rupert Neve Designs:
Founded by Rupert and Evelyn Neve, Rupert Neve Designs is built on passion, experience and a desire to create products embodying the highest musical quality. In continuing his legacy as a pioneer in audio circuit design, Mr. Rupert Neve is currently focusing his talents on creating innovative solutions to the issues facing the modern recording engineer. For further information on Rupert Neve Designs please visit www.rupertneve.com
Portico is a trademark of Rupert Neve Designs, Inc. All other trademarks remain the property of their respective owners.
Company contact: Rupert Neve Designs, PO Box 1969, Wimberley, TX 78676. Tel: (512) 847-3013 Fax: (512) 847-8869 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org]]>
PAR Editor Strother Bullins says, “The new PAR Excellence Awards voting process goes hand-in-hand with Pro Audio Review’s role as the ‘real world’ product review vehicle for the audio production industry. Between our talented, prolific team of PAR Contributors — working studio and live sound pros themselves — and our technically savvy, qualified subscriber base, the PAR Excellence Awards process is uniquely and credibly structured to truly recognize the past year’s most innovative products.”
The RN17 won in the category of Small Diaphragm Condensers, and is the first of its kind with a large scale, hand wound, ultra high performance output transformer. The combination of this transformer’s powerful low-frequency response coupled with the high-end detail derived from the 17mm gold-sputtered mylar capsule leads to an SDC like no other on the market.
For more information on the free demo loan services available for the RN17, click here. (In the USA? Click here or email email@example.com)
The Portico II Channel was chosen in the category of “Studio Hardware: Channel Strips”. It is a self-powered 2U channel module comprised of a fully-featured mic preamplifier, 4-band EQ, compressor-limiter, “texture” control and level metering. The Channel includes a bevy of features including: Variable Silk / Silk+ Texture control, a fully tunable “de-esser”, multiple VCA filtering and detection options, a transient-optimized swept HPF and parallel compression blending. With its simple yet powerful topologies and extensive feature set, every element of the Channel is geared towards empowering recording artists to capture their performances with an ultra-high level of definition and musicality.
To learn more about the Portico II Channel, click here or email firstname.lastname@example.org.
Click here for the full list of nominees.]]>
Beresford, who had no previous experience with the 5088, has already found time to mix several projects on the console. “What I really love about the 5088 is that it doesn’t have that thick muddiness that for me some newer consoles have,” he said. “I guess some people might consider the 5088 to be colored in some way, and I guess it does have a kind of warmth and depth you’d expect from anything Rupert Neve designed. But honestly, I find it to be really transparent and open and airy sounding. The depth of field and stereo imagery on the console is fantastic, and I’m finding that I’m able to get to a good point in a mix very quickly. I wasn’t sure what to expect of a modern day Rupert Neve design after having used his vintage ones for so long, and I’ve got to say I’m very impressed.”
“We decided we wanted the transparency of the 5088, and we really wanted the transient response,” added Richardson. “It’s a really great sounding console. It doesn’t really impose itself on the tracks; things just come through and they’re right.”
The 5088 console is configured without the optional Rupert Neve Designs mic preamp and EQ modules in order to take advantage of the vast collection of outboard analog equipment at Mix One from manufacturers such as Chandler, Daking, D.W.Fearn, Focusrite, Langevin, Manley, Pendulum, Vintech, Wunder and others. Jeff Briss and the team at Cutting Edge Audio Group consulted on the project and supplied the majority of the control room equipment.
“It really fits our workflow,” said Richardson of the 5088. “Once we come out of the DAW we want to stay analog. We can patch any of the outboard gear between the outputs of the DAW and the console, and we can interface any of the dynamics into the buses. Whatever we want to do, it’s all on the patchbay.”
Shea, who also had a hand in selecting the 5088, almost single-handedly stripped the control room back to the sub-floor and cinder block walls, rebuilding it according to a drawing from Richardson and applying acoustical treatment. “He turned it into a pretty amazing sounding room,” commented Richardson. “He really brought it back to its former glory and made it sound as good as the live room.”
The building at 1340 Mission was established as Mercury Recording in 1969 and was remodeled by Bill Putnam in 1971 as the now legendary Coast Recorders. Veteran mastering engineer Michael Romanowski, who moved his Michael Romanowski Mastering operation into 1340 Mission in 2002, acquired the building and re-established the Coast Recorders name at the beginning of 2012. He has restored the live room — the largest in San Francisco — to its original Putnam design and materials and has added a second mastering room, and mastering engineer Piper Payne to his staff. In addition to the newly opened Mix One, the facility also houses The Tape Project, Romanowski’s business collaboration with mastering engineer Paul Stubblebine, as well as two other independently operated mix rooms.]]>
In Cohen’s first recordings with the 5088, the new 5051 modules have provided both versatility and tone, he reports. “I’ve been finding that I don’t need to use my outboard gear anymore, as the EQ and compressors on the 5051’s are really outstanding. On my alto saxophone, using a Neumann M49, I’ve been adding a touch of EQ at 200 and 400 Hz with the HPF set to 60 Hz and a little bit of high shelf at 16 kHz. The EQ really focuses the sound of the sax, and adds a sense of life and dimension to the mix. To add a little dynamic control, I have the compressor set to feed-forward mode with a 2:1 ratio, and gain reduction peaking from about 1 to 3 dB. The compressor sounds incredibly natural, and my saxophone has never sounded better.”
The new 5051 Inductor EQ/Compressor module combines a classic style three-band EQ based on Rupert’s vintage designs with the power and flexibility of the Portico Series compressor. With a fully class A signal path, dual line inputs and high performance transformers, the 5051 delivers exceptional tonal and dynamic control to each channel of a 5088 system.
In Cohen’s studio, the 5088 acts as the centerpiece for two tracking rooms featuring Avid Pro Tools, a Euphonix controler, two Bricasti reverbs, select outboard equipment and ATC 25a monitors. With a focus on sonic purity instead of elaborate, high track count productions, the small frame 5088 has taken the studio’s performance to another level. “Everything I’ve been doing was instantly improved by the 5088. It’s been a complete delight so far, and I’m only just starting to realize what it can do,” says Cohen.
The eight-channel 5088 is a new frame option built around the same high-voltage, class A and discrete topologies for which the 5088 is renowned. The new frame features eight mono or stereo input modules, two stereo group/aux master/FX return modules, and a standard 5088 master section. A penthouse frame can also be added to fit up to 16 half-rack RND modules, or an optional 4RU rack adapter.]]>
Toronto, ON, Canada — February 29, 2012 — The new 5088 desk is the centerpiece of a custom-made, wrap-around stainless steel console, a Zin-de-Zine design and creation, that has been ergonomically designed to place the principal components of Kühl Muzik’s hybrid digital/analog workflow conveniently within reach. Honess, who has been engineering and mixing for 15 years, began evaluating analog console options last year, arranging for demo units to be brought into the studio for extended periods. “I had been recording the same mix each time I had a new console in, summing it down through as many channels as possible. So I had references to go back to and hear the different characteristics of these consoles. As soon as I heard the 5088 I thought, this is the one I want. I loved it right away,” he says.
Honess assumed ownership of the facility, formerly known as Q Music Studios, in November 2011 after working as chief engineer for the previous owner, renowned Canadian film composer, Donald Quan, for over five years. The hybrid digital/analog setup, which is designed primarily for mixing music for film and television as well as for bands, combines the Rupert Neve Designs 5088, a Digidesign Pro Tools|HD workstation, panels from a Digidesign ProControl, analog microphone preamps and equalizers, digital reverbs and other ancillary equipment. A Genelec 5.1 monitor system and Quested stereo main monitors complete the setup.
“It’s still a work in progress, but all the main bits are in there,” says Honess. “There are a few more renovations I need to do, which will happen this year, then I’ll go into full launch mode.” In the meantime, Honess has given Kühl Muzik a soft launch and has started to introduce his clients to the new 5088 desk. “All of my clients love it,” says Honess. “It does the job nicely. As soon as I run my mixes through it, it’s quite a big hit. Most of the time they hear it as making everything sound more musical.”
Honess, in collaboration with Robin and Cynthia Keus of Zin-de-Zine, designed the unique stainless steel-panelled console into which the equipment is installed, dubbed the “Vimana” (a Sanskrit word that can mean temple, palace or chariot of the gods). The Toronto-based artisans also designed and fabricated the metal speaker stands for the studio’s Quested monitors.
(To see more unique Zin-de-Zine creations visit www.zindezine.com.)
The custom metal structure matches the profile of the 5088 mixing console. “We wanted a smooth contour across the full width of the desk,” explains Honess. “The only way to do that was to separate the 5088’s meter bridge and move it back slightly. It actually allowed me to put my logo right in the middle. I put some nice lights underneath there, and it also acts as a heat vent.”]]>
“People have been asking Rupert to design a “classic” style inductor EQ and a Compressor / EQ module since the 5088 came, and the 5051 delivers on both counts. With the low frequency band based on the 1064 module, the mid band based on the 1073 module, and a high frequency band that combines vintage and modern techniques, the 5051 EQ is a classic in its own right.” Says RND marketing director Tristan Rhodes.
Traditional transformer coupled inputs and outputs are used for both technical performance reasons and optimum musical reproduction. The primary signal path uses Class A gain blocks; using as few of these as possible to get the job done. The input circuit uses one gain stage, as does the line driver output. The compressor introduces one stage, the EQ introduces two stages, plus one more if the 18 dB / octave high pass filter is engaged. By combining this minimalistic design aesthetics with class-A gain blocks and custom transformers, the 5051 provides the extraordinary performance and musicality expected from a Rupert Neve design.
The EQ certainly invokes similarities sound-wise with some of Rupert’s classic EQ designs from the seventies. The 5051 repeats history in using a custom tapped inductor and carefully selected capacitor values to form the mid range equalizer band. The 5051 also uses inductors for the low and high EQ, with the shelf curves and frequency choices based on Rupert’s vintage designs. While this method may not be as variable as some of Rupert’s designs of the last 20 years, the “old ways” did have a “sound” that has become rather known and sought after. The use of low-feedback, class-A gain blocks in each EQ section are also an important contributor to the overall sound, preventing low level artifacts and harshness from detracting from the tonal shaping. While these elements make the 5051 much like many of Rupert’s vintage designs, the 5051 takes advantage of techniques that were not possible 35 years ago, and should not be considered a clone of his earlier work. Rather, the 5051 is a culmination of Rupert Neve’s years of experience, expertise, and highly discerning ears, giving this unit a strong sense of Mr. Neve’s design heritage.
Both the high and low band can be switched from shelf to peak curves and offer 15 dB of boost or cut. The high band can be switched from 8 kHz to 16 kHz, and the low band can be selected at 35 Hz, 60 Hz, 100 Hz or 220 Hz. The inductor based Mid Band offers 6 center frequencies; 200 Hz, 350 Hz, 700 Hz, 1.5 kHz, 3 kHz and 6 kHz. The Mid Band also has a “Mid Hi Q” switch to narrow the bandwidth (increase the Q) of the filter. The 5051 includes an 18 dB / octave high pass filter with cutoff frequencies on a button that toggles through “OFF, 60 Hz and 120 Hz” indicated by a blue or red LED respectively. Additionally, the EQ can be switched Pre or Post the compressor. The 5051 also has two XLR balanced inputs that can be selected from the front panel. This allows the user to have both a mic preamplifier and line input from a DAW pre-patched and easily selectable.
The compressor likewise contains some elements of the past, utilizing class A gain blocks, mixed with the gain reduction techniques that have been developed over the years and is similar to the Master Buss Processor. The threshold has a range of -30 dBu to +20 dBu. The ratio can be set from 1.1:1 to 40:1. The attack has a range of 5 ms to 75 ms, and the release is variable from 100 ms to 2.5 s to be set. Make-up gain can be set from -6 dB to +20 dB.
The Compressor allows the user to select either a modern feed-forward topology or the traditional feed-back style of compression. Each has advantages depending on the source and desired sound. The 5051 includes a 12 dB/octave 250Hz high pass filter that can be switched into the compressor side-chain to reduce the chance that loud low frequency material inadvertently affects the gain reduction. There is also a link switch and associated 1/4” phone jacks on the back panel so that multiple 5051’s can be properly used for stereo. The back panel also features a pair of 1/4” phone jacks to patch in your own EQ into the side-chain for de-essing and finessing the compressor response. The 5051 has two 8 segment fast acting accurate LED bar-graph meters to indicate Gain Reduction and Output Level.
Unlike other modules for the 5088, the 5051 requires its own standalone power supply to operate. The power supply features proprietary 4-pin polarized outputs at +24 and -24V DC, and will power up to twenty-five 5051 modules.]]>
“This expansion marks our commitment to production studies and allows for our continued growth in the arts community,” said Jeffrey Rabhan, chair of the Clive David Institute of Recorded Music. “It’s an integral part of our mission here at the Institute to provide the best facilities and opportunities for our students.”
The studio, comprising a Live Room and Control Room, measures approximately 600 sq. ft. and will serve as a new mix/overdub and teaching facility. It contains a 16-channel Rupert Neve Designs 5088 discrete analog mixing console, and is additionally outfitted with eight Portico 5032 Mic Pre/Equalizer and eight 5033 5-Band EQ modules in the console’s penthouse section. Jeff DelBello of dB Sound Design oversaw design and supplied and installed the audio equipment in the room. Chris Bowman of CHBO Inc. provided acoustical treatment for the space.
“The studio contains all top-quality equipment in a professionally appointed, acoustically balanced space, and reflects the current trends in pragmatic and economically feasible studio design,” said Nicholas Sansano, associate arts professor and production faculty head. “It also had to be easy to work in and not require a lot of setup time, and Jeff DelBello of dB Sound Design did an outstanding job of making the facility user friendly for our students.”
The 5088 is integrated into a hybrid setup that combines the console’s high quality, discrete analog front end, signal processing and summing buss facilities with an Avid Pro Tools|HD system and Artist Mix control surface. Analog outboard gear includes high-end units by Pendulum, Chandler, Universal Audio, and Empirical Labs, as well as instruments and amps by Fender and Ampeg. Sterling Modular supplied a leg set and custom monitor stand for the 5088 together with a custom desk for the Euphonix mix controllers.
The new studio occupies the former Studio A within the Soundtrack Film and Television multi-studio facility in Manhattan. It was a hit-maker in the 1980s for such well-known music artists as Run D.M.C, Taylor Dayne, Madonna and Steve Winwood, among others. The Clive Davis Institute also maintains two other large recording and teaching facilities on the NYU campus in Greenwich Village.
The Clive Davis Institute of Recorded Music is the first of its kind to provide professional business and artistic training toward a Bachelor of Fine Arts degree. The undergraduate program is designed to provide professional training for students who aspire to succeed as creative entrepreneurs in the music industry. Since it opened its doors in 2003, the program has been a leader in training aspiring music entrepreneurs. It has been on the cutting edge of music education, offering innovative courses like “The History of Def Jam,” “Emerging Music Trends,” and “Branding.” The program bears the name of its chief patron and advisor, Clive Davis.]]>
The new Stereo Module for the 5088 uses the same high-voltage, transformer-coupled topology found throughout the 5088, and allows both twice the density, and considerable cost savings when compared with mono modules. The Stereo Module is outfitted with a single 100mm fader, individual left/right pans, individual trims, 6 auxes and a stereo width control. When Aux to Groups on Aux 5/6 is activated, the stereo channel signal can be routed with an independent mix level to any of the 8 groups.
The 5051 combines a classic three band EQ based on Rupert’s vintage designs with the power and flexibility of the Portico Series compressor. Utilizing a discrete, class-A signal path and high performance input and output transformers, the 5051 delivers the performance and musicality expected from a Rupert Neve Design.
The EQ design on the 5051 certainly invokes sonic similarities with some of Rupert’s classic EQs. The 5051 uses a custom tapped inductor with selected capacitors to form the mid range equalizer band and the shelf curves are based on Rupert’s vintage modules, using very similar frequency choices as well. Each EQ section also uses low feedback class-A discrete to prevent low level artifacts and harshness from detracting from the tonal shaping. The EQ however, is a modern design with advantages offered by techniques that were not possible 35 years ago along with improvements in electronic components currently available, and should not be considered a clone. Let’s just say it has heritage.
Both the High and Low Band can be switched from Shelf to Peak curves and offer 15 dB of boost or cut. The High can be switched from 8 kHz to 16 kHz and the Low Band selected at 35 Hz, 60 Hz, 100 Hz or 220 Hz. The inductor based Mid Band offers 6 center frequencies; 200 Hz, 350 Hz, 700 Hz, 1.5 kHz, 3 kHz and 6 kHz. The Mid Band also has a High Peak switch to narrow the bandwidth or increase the Q of the filter. The 5051 includes an 18 dB/octave High Pass Filter with two corner frequencies on a lit button that toggles through “OFF, 60 Hz then 120 Hz indicated by a blue or red LED respectively.
Additionally, the EQ can be switched Pre or Post the compressor. Normally the EQ precedes the compressor but the order can be selected so that the EQ follows after the Compressor. The 5051 also has two XLR balanced inputs that can be switched from the front panel. This allows the user, for example, to have a mic preamplifier and line input from a DAW to be pre-patched and easily selectable.
The 5051 Compressor also features a discrete class A signal path proven used in the Portico Series. The Threshold has a range of -30 dBu to +10 dBu. The Ratio can be set from 1.1:1 to 40:1. The Attack has a range of 5mS to 75mS and the Release allows from 100mS to 2.5 S to be set. Final Gain can be set from -6 dB to +20 dB.
The Compressor allows the user to select either a modern Feed-Forward topology or the traditional Feed-Back style of compression. Each has advantages depending on the source and desired sound. The 5051 includes a 250Hz high pass filter that can be switched into the compressor side-chain to reduce the chance that loud low frequency material inadvertently affects the gain reduction. There is also a LINK switch and associated 1/4″ phone jacks on the back panel so that 2 (or multiple) 5051′s can be properly used for stereo where gain changes happen together. Speaking of the back panel, there is also a pair of 1/4″ phone jacks to patch in your own EQ into the side-chain for de-essing and finessing. The 5051 has two fast acting accurate LED bar-graph meters to indicate Gain Reduction and Output Level.
It should be pointed out that the 5051, at this time, is intended exclusively for 5088 consoles. The 5051 uses a shared central power supply designed to feed up to 25 5051′s. This both reduces heat build up within modules and reduces the costs associated with DC-DC converters in every module.]]>